rom flashing Where the original stock Rom is usually stored? Android Enthusiasts Stack Exchange

Afterwards, LineageOS was created as a spiritual successor to CyanogenMod. LineageOS is a more vanilla, and privacy-focused ROM, based on AOSP (the Android Open-Source Project). The official versions don’t come with Google apps, but still use some Google services, such as the DNS server, or the WebView package. Thankfully Xiaomi Mi Note 10 has received Lineage OS 18.1 based on Android 11. Lineage OS 18.1 is an upgraded version of Lineage OS 18 with some performance and security enhancements. Following the guide, you can easily download/install Lineage OS 18.1 For Xiaomi Mi Note 10 (Android 11).

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If you want to factory reset while you install stock firmware select the file which starts with “CSC” file for the CSC button, otherwise, load the “HOME_CSC” instead. Make sure F.Reset.Time and Auto Reboot option are the only ones checked in the Odin’s “Options” tab.

  • A custom ROM is a good option if you’d like to make your device stand out.
  • If there is no update available, but you are on an older version of Android, it might be that your phone is too old for new updates.
  • These are customized versions of Android done by mobile companies to make their devices unique in looks and features.
  • Since they don’t make the source code public, the developers face a hard-time building up ROMs for these devices.
  • Android Go phones similarly use software that riffs on stock Android.

If you are wondering how to flash stock firmware on your Samsung phones, the process is really simple and easy to use. In this guide, we are going to show you how you can flash stock firmware on Samsung Galaxy devices using Odin. So read all the steps very carefully and follow all the steps one by one on your phone.

A custom ROM essentially replaces the stock ROM or skin on your phone. For example, if you have a Xiaomi or Redmi phone running on MIUI but don’t like https://uv.edu.ph/firmware-downloads/unlock-the-potential-of-your-samsung-sgh-t959-with/ the interface, you can install a custom ROM that will change the UI to vanilla Android. In my opinion, if you have a Google Pixel phone, I recommend giving a try to either CalyxOS, CopperheadOS or Lineage. These Android ROMs have excellent features to help you keep your phone out of Google’s spying eyes while also keeping your phone [arguably] more secure. One of the most effective ways to do that is by installing a privacy/security-focused Android ROM. Join us and breathe new life in your device, be it old or new.

Redmi Note 4 Firmware mido MIUI Download

Xiaomi Redmi note 4 mtk China history Recovery ROM MIUI 7.5.4, Weekly android 6.0 firmware of nikel. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 mtk China history Recovery ROM MIUI 7.5.11, Weekly android 6.0 firmware of nikel. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 mtk China history Recovery ROM MIUI 7.6.5, Weekly android 6.0 firmware of nikel. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 mtk China history Recovery ROM MIUI 7.6.10, Weekly android 6.0 firmware of nikel. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 mtk China history Recovery ROM MIUI 7.12.8, Weekly android 6.0 firmware of nikel. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 mtk China history Recovery ROM MIUI 8.1.4, Weekly android 6.0 firmware of nikel.

  • If you’re in a hurry then you can download the firmware from the below-listed download link.
  • On this page, Android ADB Driver provides official Xiaomi Redmi Note 4 Snapdragon USB Drivers, ADB Driver and Fastboot Driver.
  • Take a Backup (Causion)- If you are going to flash the Redmi Note 4 Mobile STOCK ROM, then firstly create Mobile all data Backup.
  • But nowadays with increasing resourceful Apps, Games, Redmi Note 4 with smaller RAM size started to lag a bit.

Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 8.1.18, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 8.1.25, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 8.2.1, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido.

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Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 7.4.13, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 7.4.20, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 7.4.27, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 7.5.4, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido. Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Fastboot ROM MIUI 7.5.11, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido.

How to enter download mode on Xiaomi Redmi Note 4 (MediaTek) ? Using these, you can build both a LineageOS installation zip and a LineageOS Recovery image stock ROM and install them on your device.

How to Find and Install Missing Windows Drivers The Easy Way

Depending on how current your computer is, you may have several updates, or like in this case a single update. Check the Recommended Updates and Check Automatically restart saitek x 45 specs computer Then click the Install button . Download the latest version then Double-click the file. Then click the INSTALL button on the Dell Update Package screen . If your switchable graphics are working fine, here is how you can prevent the older driver being delivered via Windows Update from installing.

In the group policy editor, you will see multiple folders on the left panel. This is where we will find the relevant policy that blocks Windows 10 from installing the graphics driver. Studio Drivers provide the best possible experience for key creative applications. NVIDIA does extensive testing across the top creative applications to ensure the highest levels of performance, stability, and functionality. Check the box to hide the Intel graphics driver update.

Why should graphics drivers be up to date?

Functionality, often the PCL drivers for the printer model the all-in-one. Most printers require that you install the latest printer driver so that the printer will work well. The severity of the frame loss due to system scheduling latency depends on several factors such as overall hardware performance, drivers for other hardware components, etc.

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How to Manually Update Drivers in Windows XP Click on the Start button. In Device Manager window, expand categories and locate the device that you wish to update the driver for.

How do I start Windows without internet?

The close interaction between software, driver, and hardware is what makes everything work on your computer. Let’s go back to our language interpretation analogy. Language translation is only as good as the worst speaker of a language in the chain. If your interpreter speaks very good English but only passable German, then it’s possible they’ll misspeak, and the German speaker won’t truly understand what’s being said.

  • Although the system can detect and configure most hardware automatically through the basic set of drivers library and Windows Update, sometimes, the system may fail to detect some devices.
  • The technical storage or access that is used exclusively for anonymous statistical purposes.
  • In July 1973 German Federal Minister of Defence Georg Leber and his US counterpart James R. Schlesinger agreed upon a higher degree of standardisation in main battle tanks being favourable to NATO.

Make sure the printer is switched on and the connection between the printer and computer is established . After uninstalling Drivers, download the latest Drivers from the Canon website or use a Driver Update Tool for the Canon printer and install the Drivers. Browse to the Microsoft Windows update page for instructions on how to make sure you have the latest updates. This is the command it executes when run with admin rights.

Poco F3 Stock ROM Firmware Fastboot Flash File

Connect the device stock firmware with PC and transfer the files to the downloaded_rom folder in your Redmi Note 5 Pro internal storage. Now you successfully flashed the Fastboot ROM on your phone and downgraded the Redmi Note 5 Pro.

  • Xiaomi Poco f1 Global history Recovery ROM MIUI 8.8.28, Closed Beta / Nightly android 8.1 firmware of beryllium.
  • Recovery ROM for Indonesia (ID) Redmi Note 8 is Stable release and needed to flashed under the Recovery mode of your Redmi Note 8 (ginkgo) device.
  • Before flashing your Xiaomi phone via fastboot, the device’s bootloader must already be unlocked.

With Flash file, you can also re-install the Stock Firmware on any Android device. You can also install this firmware zip file when you are facing Software Issue, Boot loop Issue, and much more. You may also repair your Xiaomi device using Stock ROM Firmware Flash File. MIUI software update installs the latest features and improvements for the Xiaomi, Mi, Redmi, and Poco devices. These software update rolls out via OTA update and expands gradually.

  • This is a complete collection of POCO F1 MIUI firmware created for Region/Country with Global, may avaliable for models M1805E10A.
  • Xiaomi Redmi note 4 Global history Recovery ROM MIUI 8.1.18, Weekly android 7.0 firmware of mido.
  • If your device is already EOL and not receiving updates, you don’t need to wait.
  • This is a complete collection of Redmi Note 7 Pro MIUI firmware created for Region/Country with India (IN), may avaliable for models M1901F7S, M1901F7BE.

Recovery ROM for Global Redmi K20 Pro / Mi 9T Pro is Stable release and needed to flashed under the Recovery mode of your Redmi K20 Pro / Mi 9T Pro (raphael) device. Fastboot ROM for Global Redmi K20 Pro / Mi 9T Pro is Stable release and needed to flashed under the Fastboot mode of your Redmi K20 Pro / Mi 9T Pro (raphael) device. To repair damage to software, you can do a factory reset. You can flash it with Miflash or other qualcomm Flasher. 27W Fast Charging or Quick Charge 4.0+ is one of the latest and fastest charging technology. But you will get a 9V/2A fast charger in the box which can charge the phone in around one and half an hour. If you buy a 27W charger, it can charge the phone in around an hour.

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Xiaomi Pocophone F1 gets a MobileDokan score of 7.5 out of 10. Download the latest Xiaomi Redmi Note 8 Stock ROM, and official firmware [Flash file]. On this page, we shared a complete guide on how to download and install Custom ROMs, and stock firmware using Windows and Linux PC. In this article, you will get the download links after extracting it on any desktop computer. You will receive a full package including a flash file, flash tool, and USB drivers to unlock or flash any Android device manually. XiaoMiTool V2 (XMT2) is a unofficial tool for your personal computer that you can use to manage your xiaomi smartphone rom and software and do some modding easily. XiaoMiTool V2 it’s the follow-up of XiaoMiTool, with improved stability, more features and better graphics.

Download Samsung Galaxy S5 firmware almost everyone today knows what is Operation System Android, why it s so popular among millions of users and how … The Xiaomi Redmi Note 7 Pro USB Driver is a free software primarily used to install the Xiaomi Drivers on the Windows Computer with a few clicks. Xiaomi Redmi Note 7 Pro Smartphone is powered by Qualcomm SDM675 Snapdragon 675 Chipset. Therefore, you have to install the Qualcomm USB Driver and the ADB Driver to connect the Smartphone to the Computer. Xiaomi Redmi Note 7 Pro Run on android 9.0 OS and Powered by QCOM SD 675 Processor. It is a Dual SIM Smartphone Support Nano SIM Card, connectivity Option’s Include 3G 4G, GPS, Wi Fi, Bluetooth etc, Sensor include Goryo Proximity Gravity etc. Xiaomi’s Redmi Note 7 Pro with a 48MP Sony camera, up to 6GB of RAM will be limited to India and China as part of the company’s product strategy.

Oppo A3S CPH1803 Stock Firmware ROM Flash File

You can flash Oppo A37 Android Phone Firmware with Flash tool. The Oppo A37 is a dual SIM (GSM and GSM) smartphone that accepts Nano-SIM and Nano-SIM. Connectivity options include Wi-Fi, GPS, Bluetooth, USB OTG, FM, 3G and 4G (with support for Band 40 used by some LTE networks in India). Sensors on the phone include Compass Magnetometer, Proximity sensor, Accelerometer, and Gyroscope. You can reset or unlock any android mobile with this Android tool. Follow the step by step procedure to use One Click Unbrick Tool and unbrick your Oppo A37.

oppo a3s stock rom

The official link to get the OPPO Firmware Stock ROM or flash file is available on this website. Basically, you may flash, update, or unbrick your Android phone with this mobile firmware. Flashing Tool and the appropriate USB Driver are included in the zip package that contains the OPPO ASS CPH2325 Firmware when it is first released. How-to flash instructions are available on the page below.

  • Find the official download link for the Oppo ASS5 4G CPH2325 Stock ROM Firmware on this page (Flash File).
  • After Flashing,  Oppo phone doesn’t pass the boot logo that mean,there is something wrong with your Oppo A3 .
  • Free Download Oppo R11 Firmware (Oppo R11 Flash File).
  • Do not need to re-install USB Driver if you installed it before.
  • The smartphone includes 6GB of RAM and 128GB of additional storage via SD card.

On this Stock Firmware page, you can find the official link to get the Oppo F1S A1601 Stock ROM Firmware (Flash File). After Flashing,  Oppo phone doesn’t pass the boot logo that mean,there is something wrong with your Oppo F1S A1601 .

If yes are you checking out an easy way to connect your device to a PC or Laptop? Here we’ve provided free download Oppo Stock Firmware for all models supported their model numbers, just check below. Firmware is a mobile-based software that helps you to work properly on your devices. Firmware cannot be replaced or customized if it’s already installed in ROM format.

Turinabol for cutting: This Turinabol pills can help to boost stamina and endurance both in the bedroom and the gym

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When bodybuilders overdevelop their lower chest it looks like they have boobs. I finished the program all the way through BBG 3. Jump feet Tbol to the sides while taking your arms out the side and up above your head.

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Each category has dozens of exercises from beginner to advanced.

If there is a far off point in the distance, why not run there and explore at the same time. Its something Born Fitness does with Turinabol tabs coaching clients; no one gets a workout plan until questions are answered. Medicine balls are timeless because they are fun and intrinsically engaging for both athletes and regular Joes.

Join us on an unparalleled journey of self-improvement, where we will guide you towards reaching your full physical and mental potential. McVay leans on them for feedback in situations like this one, Turinabol tabs him a players point of view. Some links contain affiliates, which I receive a small percentage if purchased, at no cost to you.

(6, 7, 8). For a great circuit, simply pick 3 lower body exercises and 3 upper body exercises that you can do with only your bodyweight.

The great news is that you can see results from targeted stretching within two to three weeks, Sharkey says. This is an especially great option if you’re not a gym person Oral-Turinabol want to start off small, build momentum, and begin to embrace a more active lifestyle at home.

You can estimate it by subtracting your current age from 220. Make it a rule to practice shifting to an easier gear before you need it.

Unfortunately, the effect only lasts between 5-15 minutes at best. Turinabol for cutting you just show up and do the bare minimum, you wont get the most out of the experience.

Perform this workout up to three times a week on nonconsecutive days. In interval training you are alternately increasing and decreasing your heart rate.

Then, put your right hand on the ground and straighten your right arm. Bend your elbows out to the sides and lower.

Youll find that you have more energy, fewer cravings, and a leaner Oral-Turinabol. The idea is that with circuit training like this, you work different body parts.

Youll want a small pre-workout snack so youre alert and have enough blood sugar to avoid feeling depleted halfway through. Over the past few years, lagree fitness has taken the world by storm for bringing together bodybuilding techniques Turinabol tabs pilates. One of these is the long-awaited Time to Run feature which introduces outdoor guided running sessions to the app.

Youll be able to track your distance run and calories burned and monitor your heart rate so you stay in your target zone. You need to repeat each Turinabol for cutting 20 times, then after completing the whole cycle rest for about 30 seconds to a minute and repeat everything two more times.

Their goal is to help their active people find their inner strength with delicious-tasting supplements. This could dramatically improve your calorie burning, I know its rough as I spend a lot of time behind my computer as well.

It does a good job building up unilateral strength and correcting muscle and strength balances in the upper body. Or, if you possess the control and Turinabol tabs of motion, go ass to grass. The alternating arm action increases time under tension, making light and moderate weights feel heavy.

You can do the front squat one week or the floor press in place of the bench press. Keep your core engaged as your torso lowers closer to the mat. If you Turinabol pills after the ‘feel’ of the weight stack of weight plates you should look at other machines.

Part 2 covers the first neuro profile: the novelty seeker. Jump onto the box Turinabol pills immediately back down to the same position. Talk about killing two birds with one stone, right.

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We also chose some products for this list specifically because of their crystal-clear dosing. People who are VERY overweight should use their target body weight instead of their current body Oral-Turinabol when doing this calculation. His turning point was last year, when we were peeking out the garage windows like creepers, checking out all of the neighbors Christmas lights.

Going to the gym is one of the best things you can do for your body and health. Tip: Make sure the move is Turinabol pills continuous pull from the ground to overhead; speed under bar is key.

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  • Online Dating Safety and How to Recognize Red Flags

    One of the key questions surrounding online dating is whether these platforms lead to long-term relationships. Some 53% of adults under 30 have ever used a dating site or app – including a quarter who have used one in the past year. This compares with 37% of those ages 30 to 49 who have ever tried online dating and smaller shares of those 50 to 64 (20%) and 65 and older (13%) who say the same.

    • “They are being tricked meeting up with people. And once they are getting there, they are actually taking money from them and things like that.”
    • Additionally, male profiles that had a biography received 69 matches while those without received only 16 matches .
    • There are also useful questionnaires that give you insight into your actually any traits and compatibility skills, which can help australia online dating game regardless of really hookup you end up using the most.
    • According to Pew’s survey, 44 percent of online daters say they are looking for a long-term partner, 40 percent are interested in casual dating, 24 percent want casual sex, and 22 percent are just interested in friendship.

    Pluralities also believe that whether a couple met online or in person has little effect on the success of their relationship. There are some groups who are particularly wary of the idea of meeting someone through dating platforms.

    Tip 2: Build a genuine connection

    Dating experts reveal the common blunders singles make with their photos, bios and prompts. Here are the new rules around ending a relationship by Zoom or texts. Furthermore, when describing themselves, people will often present their best selves while leaving out flaws. Some users may even deceptively present inaccurate information on their profile merely to get someone interested in them. Of course, hobbies and sports are always a great way to mingle. Consider joining a sports club or take lessons for an activity you want to start doing. Some people recommend Meet Upas a fun way to find people nearby who are interested in the same activities, whether that’s skating or going to museums or concerts.

    The New Happy Has 500k Instagram Followers—Here’s How the Founder Built a Real Community

    Once the quiz is completed, you fill out your profile with prompts, photos, and icons to indicate your hobbies and interest. Our tester says the profile took at least 20 minutes to complete, although not all users include the same level of detail on their profiles. Every Thursday, the app comes to life with people near you who also want to meet that day. In the time it takes to order a drink on one date, you’ll be matched with 3 users in your area that match your preferences. As sparks typically fly in just moments, these mini-dates save users time and energy–all from the comfort of your couch. We believe in quality over quantity, and that smart daily recommendations are better for busy people than an unlimited buffet of options. We let you set ultra-specific preferences and only suggest you a few Prospects a day that we think you will actually like.

    A few of the best or cheapest competitors reaped significant gains while many former domestic champions or viable competitors lost out. These sites also generate significant levels of inequality, especially for men. One analyst found that“like inequality” for men on Tinderis higher than income inequality in the United States . Ananalyst at Hinge foundthat women’s inequality on that site was roughly equal to the average income inequality for the world’s countries (aGini coefficientof 0.376), similar to Western Europe.

    Pure is a perfect match for those who value confidentiality, as profiles are removed every 24 hours. You can also send random pictures that will self-destruct a few seconds after your partner sees them. Even though Tinder claims to cater to all types of dating, everyone knows it’s best for one-night stands. Swipe right to meet people or left to remove them from your view. Priced at the higher $32 to $40 a month depending on age, all the Tinder Gold and Plus benefits are included at this tier.

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    Since dating can be stressful, there is the possibility of humor to try to reduce tensions. In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Rosenfeld found that heterosexual couples are more likely to meet a romantic partner online than through personal contacts and connections. Since 1940, traditional ways of meeting partners – through family, in church and in the neighborhood – have all been in decline, Rosenfeld said. The company has said that this app is single, progressive and specially designed for the Gen Z market.

    So it’s taken that pressure off, this has to be a friendship interaction, and this has to be a romantic interaction. The platforms highlighted below are legal, so you don’t have to worry about getting scammed. OurTime.com is a dating site that caters to singles 50 years and older. Registration is free, and you can view profiles of singles in your area. The app is easy to use, and you can connect with local singles that interest you. Starting a conversation here is very easy because your potential matches are meant to comment on a specific piece of information on your profile.

    They are oriented on varied countries and on the varied nationalities. There hookupguru the sites with the diverse prices and the diverse functionalities. You will need a premium membership to use the site’s full potential. For example, messaging people as a free member lets you only use the message feature to send site-generated icebreakers, while Standard members can only send winks and add folks to their favorites.

    • Meetup.com is another popular platform, however it’s not built around dating.
    • Research from Berkeley University in California suggests there is a dropoff in interest after online daters meet face-to-face.
    • This may have something to do with most of its features being free.
    • Three-in-ten U.S. adults say they have ever used a dating site or app, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted July 5-17, 2022.
    • A line of research initiated in recent years links dark personality traits to the reasons for using Tinder.

    So until then, I’m delighted and would like to say thank you towards the present software for providing usa together. I got most positive and negative experiences previously, and many consumers actually shattered the emotions.

    How to use dating apps like a pro

    The date can be online or physical, with the latter costing the paying party any expenses incurred during the meet-up. If the date is to take place in a venue that requires an entry fee, your partner should pay for that too. As to how much you get to take home, the going rate averages $80 to $100 per date. Also, as an attractive member, you have an option to negotiate the bid if you feel the amount is too. After submitting your request, you’ll receive a confirmation email giving you access to the site. This is an adult dating website where bids are placed to win a date.

    The Dangers of Dating App Meet-Ups

    Reverting to characteristics of traditional sexual scripts, women may find themselves further entrenched in unwanted gender roles. Feminist Gail Dines has opined that pornography is “a cultural force that is shaping the sexual attitudes of an entire generation” and a “major form of sex ed today for boys.”

    Most importantly, you get to set the budget for the entire date. What this means is that you get to keep the full-price amount. Finally, you don’t have to disclose your personal identity if you are not comfortable with a bidder. For the chance to get paid to date a millionaire or just the average Joe, you pay a subscription fee of $59.99 for 30 days.

    Basically, you’re given a random profile with the option to either “like” them or “X” cross them out – sort of like Tinder’s swipe feature. Most of the members on SearchingforSingles are from the US, but you can still find users worldwide! Plus, there are also more women than men on this hookup site, if that’s what you’re after. Tinder has been called the harbinger of the hookup-fueled “dating apocalypse.” But the truth of the matter is, hooking up isn’t anything new . And as for Tinder, sure, it can be used for swiftly finding a one-night stand, but there are plenty of other apps that are better suited for that task. You don’t have to travel thousands of miles away to meet your date when you find the perfect match – as Tinder lets you only access singles near your location.

    What are Food Supplements and Who Needs Them?

    There are numerous food supplements on the market, but whom are they for? When are they beneficial, ineffective, or even harmful? In this article, we explore the general recommendations for taking food supplements.

    What are food supplements?

    The idea behind food supplements, also called dietary or nutritional supplements, is to deliver nutrients that may not be consumed in sufficient quantities. Food supplements can be vitaminsminerals, amino acids, fatty acids, and other substances delivered in the form of pills, tablets, capsules, liquid, etc.1 Supplement are available in a range of doses, and in different combinations. However, only a certain amount of each nutrient is needed for our bodies to function, and higher amounts are not necessarily better. At high doses, some substances may have adverse effects and may become harmful. For the reason of safeguarding consumers’ health, supplements can therefore only be legally sold with an appropriate daily dose recommendation, and a warning statement not to exceed that dose.

    Supplement use varies in Europe. For example, it is common in Germany and Denmark (43% and 59% of the adult population respectively) but is less so in Ireland and Spain (23% and 9% respectively). Women use supplements more than men.

    Who needs food supplements?

    Supplements are not a substitute for a balanced healthy diet.1 A diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, adequate protein, and healthy fats should normally provide all the nutrients needed for good health. Most European countries agree that messages aimed at the general public should focus on food-based dietary guidelines. Supplements do not feature in these guidelines, but there are certain population groups or individuals who may need advice about supplements, even when they eat a healthy balanced diet, i.e. women of childbearing age, and individuals on specific medications.

    Partly due to our modern lifestyle, not everyone manages to eat a healthy diet. In Europe, dietary surveys have suggested that there are suboptimal intakes for several micronutrients. The EU-funded EURRECA project found inadequate intakes of vitamin C, vitamin D, folic acid, calcium, selenium, and iodine. A recent comparison of national surveys showed widespread concern about vitamin D intakes, whereas certain age groups are more likely to have low intakes of minerals. For example, there is concern about adequate intake of iron amongst teenage girls in Denmark, France, Poland, Germany, and the UK. Poor iron status in young women also increases the risk of infants being born with low birth weight, iron deficiency, and delayed brain development. Folate status is also critical for women who may become pregnant. They are advised to take folic acid before conception and continue for the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. An adequate folate status can decrease the risk of having a baby with neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Recent research suggests that 50–70% of Europeans have poor vitamin D status. Since vitamin D status is dependent not only on dietary intake but also exposure to UV light, there may be a stronger case for advising supplements for vitamin D in Northern European countries. In some countries (including the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Sweden) there are already recommendations for certain groups in the population to take a vitamin D supplement, although there are calls for more research.

    Other common concerns are shown in Table 1, although groups considered at risk are not the same in different countries.

    Examples of population groups requiring specific advice about supplements

    Population group Nutrients
    People over age 50 Vitamin D, Vitamin B12, folate

    Frail elderly may benefit from a low-dose multivitamin supplement.

    Women of childbearing age Folic acid and vitamin D, possibly iron
    Children under age 5 Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, although children with a good appetite who eat a wide variety of food may not need them.
    Breastfeeding individuals Vitamin D
    People with insufficient sun exposure or darker skin Vitamin D
    Vegans Vitamin B12, vitamin D2

    Particular risks for specific population groups

    Despite having a role in the health of some individuals, not all supplements are useful for everybody. In fact, for some people, it is not advisable to take certain supplements, in particular in high doses. Some studies show multivitamins can contribute to an increased risk of excessive nutrient intake, and it has been suggested that multivitamins should be formulated with greater consideration for the intakes of micronutrients from foods. Individuals should pay particular attention to reading the label and assure that a supplement is suitable for them. For pregnant women, for example, supplements containing vitamin A (retinol) including fish liver oil may be harmful and cause birth defects if the recommended dose is greatly exceeded, or exceeded over an extended period of time.

    Studies have also highlighted that smokers should be wary of some supplements, particularly high doses of beta-carotene. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has considered the evidence in this area and has concluded that exposure to β-carotene below 15 mg/day is safe in the general population, including smokers.


    Some population groups are advised to take specific supplements. The overall message is: to follow a healthy, balanced diet, carefully read the labels of supplements and fortified foods, and avoid taking multiple doses that exceed the Recommended Daily Amounts (RDAs). In case of doubt, seek advice from a dietitian or medical doctor before choosing a dietary supplement.

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